Black Tree Monitor

Location

In the Zoo

Scientific Information

Scientific Name: Varanus beccarii
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Family: Varanidae
Genus: Varanus

Size

Male

Female

Height:
Length: 3.5 feet 3.5 feet
Weight:
Maturity: Maturity is reached in 2 years. Maturity is reached in 2 years.

Lifestyle and Lifespan

Diet: Carnivorous
Activity Timeframe: Diurnal
Interactivity: Solitary
Sexual Dimorphism: Yes
Gestation: 164-165 days
Lifespan in the Wild: 15 years
Lifespan in Captivity: 15 years

Geographic Range

Found exclusively on the Aru Islands, off the coast of New Guinea.

Conservation

Status in the Wild:
Threats:

Characteristics

V. prasinus is one of the prettiest monitors, with color varying from an intense turquoise green to black. The degree of black patterning varies with some specimens unmarked and others covered in a black reticulum. This subspecies is the totally black (melanistic) form. They may reach a total length of 100 cm (39 in.). This species of monitor is remarkable for its extreme slenderness and long narrow head and neck. Like all monitors, ear openings are evident, eyes have eyelids and round pupils and the jaws have powerful flattened teeth that curve slightly to the rear. The body is fairly massive with powerful legs, each having five clawed toes. Males tend to have larger heads and broader tails than females. The body is covered with various small, non-overlapping scales that form a granular pattern. The tail is usually twice the length of the body.

Species Specifics

While a relatively large lizard, the Black Tree Monitor is smaller than many other monitors. Their total length can reach up to 3-3.5 feet, with the tail making up 60-70% of the total length.The Black Tree Monitor is believed to be either a subspecies or a color variance of the Green Tree Monitor and therefore is very similar in appearance.Sexual Dimorphism. Males, in general, are larger in size. They have larger heads and the base of the male's tail is more triangularly shaped. The base of the female's tail tends to be more roundly shape.

Physical Characteristics

- This lizard is well adapted to an arboreal existence. It's prehensile tail is used as a very precise and dexterous extra limb. (It's tail is particularly long, sometimes it make up almost 2/3's of the reptile's body! The Black Tree Monitor uses it's lon

Ecology

Habitat

Found in lowland rainforests, palm forests, mangrove swamps and cocoa plantations. Seen only on trees and vines.

Distribution

Diet

Carnivorous. Feeds mainly on insects and other small invertebrates, especially tree crickets. Will eat rodents. Will also feed on eggs and nestlings found in the treetops. (They will also eat on crabs and frogs.)

Ecological Web

Secondary consumer. (Relatively little is known about the ecology of this animal in the wild.)

Activity and Behavior

Activity Pattern

Diurnal. Monitors are daytime lizards and spend most of their days living in treetops or swamps in search of food.

Behavior

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Social Behavior

Solitary. Although monitors are not social, neither are they territorial. Bipedal ritual combat has been observed in the trees during the breeding season. Since their tails are so important that defend their tails, rather than use them as whips. Black Tree Monitors in the wild are reported to be nervous and high-strung; they will flee if threatened, and if handled carelessly, will scratch, bite and then defecate on the offender.

Reproductive Behavior

Female lays 3-7 eggs, (often twice a year) that are incubated 164-165 days.

Offspring

Hatchlings are about 20 cm (8 in.) long and weigh 8-10 grams. Black Tree Monitors, as the name suggests, are entirely black. However, hatchlings often possess a bright pattern consisting of rows of green or yellow spots which completely disappear within 12 weeks.

Conservation

Status

Not listed as endangered. (Listed as Data Deficient by IUCN.) But, it is vulnerable to loss of habitat due to the deforestation prevalent within its small, restricted range. It is also popular in the pet trade, with most specimens being captured from the wild, because they need so much room to breed in captivity.)

Historical

Current Threats

Our Role

How You Can Help

Fascinating Facts

Black Tree Monitors are born in various shades of green, but turn completely black as they reach adulthood.

Also referred to as Beccari's Monitor, or Aru Island Monitor.

Unlike other monitors, they do not use their tails as weapons.

They are nervous animals and usually hide amid the trees when humans are present.

References

Bennett, Daniel. Monitor Lizards: Natural History, Biology and Husbandry.

Grzimek, Bernhard. 1975. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Vol. 6. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co, NY.

Martin, Kristi. "Reptiles of Oakland Zoo" talk given January 23, 1999.

Mattison, Chris. Lizards of the World. 1989. Facts on File Inc.,New York, NY.

"Black Tree Monitor, Regenstein Small Mammal-Reptile House." Lincoln Park Zoo. On-line. Accessed March 7, 2017 at http://www.lpzoo.org/animal/black-tree-monitor

"Black Tree Monitor." Buffalo Zoo. On-line. Accessed March 7, 2017 at https://buffalozoo.org/animal/black-tree-monitor/

"Black Tree Monitor." The Big Zoo. On-line. Accessed March 7, 2017 at http://www.thebigzoo.com/Animals/Black_Tree_Monitor.asp

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