Pancake Tortoise

Location

In the Zoo

Scientific Information

Scientific Name: Malacochersus tornieri
Class: Reptilia
Order: Testudines
Family: Testudinidae
Genus: Malacochersus

Size

Male

Female

Height: 1-2 inches 1-2 inches
Length: 6-7 inches 6-7 inches
Weight: 1 pound 1 pound
Maturity:

Lifestyle and Lifespan

Diet: Herbivorous
Activity Timeframe: Diurnal
Interactivity: Social
Sexual Dimorphism: Yes
Gestation: 150-221 days
Lifespan in the Wild: 25-35+ years
Lifespan in Captivity: 25 years

Geographic Range

Found at altitudes of 1000 to 6000 feet in isolated location in Kenya and Tanzania. (The East African species if native to southern Kenya and northern and eastern Tanzania, and an introduced population may also occur in Zimbabwe.)

Conservation

Status in the Wild: Vulnerable
Threats: Over Consumption

Characteristics

Unique among most tortoises, the Pancake Tortoise doesn't have a high, rigid carapace (upper shell.) Instead, it's carapace is extremely flattened, and is also very flexible (because the underlying bone isn't solid, but instead has many openings.)This tortoise may look unusual, but it is perfectly adapted to its rocky habitat. With it's flat, flexible shell this reptile can squeeze into rocky crevices - great places to hide from predators or cool off during the heat of the day. This tortoise also has strong limbs that it uses to wedge itself into the rocks. It's strong limbs are also great for climbing around the uneven terrain. This tortoise's brown carapace also helps it blend into its rocky surroundings.The tortoise's camouflaged appearance is particularly useful when it goes on foraging missions. This is an herbivore, a strict vegetarian that eats various kinds of grasses and leaves. (This tortoise does most of its feeding early in the morning.)

Species Specifics

Sexual Dimorphism. The carapace of an adult measures about 6 inches, with females slightly larger than males.

Physical Characteristics

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Ecology

Habitat

Areas of thorn bush or savanna with small hills with rocky outcrops (kopjes) are the preferred habitat.

Distribution

Found at altitudes of 1000 to 6000 feet in isolated location in Kenya and Tanzania.

Diet

Eats succulents, thorn bush, grass and other plants in the wild. In captivity, will accept a variety of fruits and vegetables.

Ecological Web

Primary consumer.

Activity and Behavior

Activity Pattern

Diurnal. Feeds in the morning and evening.The Pancake Tortoise spends a lot of it's time among the rocks, where it is sheltered. It is mainly active in the morning, emerging to bask and to feed. It generally only emerges from shelter for about an hour at a time, and is quite mobile and active during that time. When threatened, it will run into a crevice and use its legs to wedge itself as deeply as it can, remaining there until the danger is gone.

Behavior

Social Behavior

These tortoises are surprisingly social, and get along well in a group as long as there is enough food for all. As many as ten tortoises have been found sharing the same crevice.

Reproductive Behavior

Mating takes place in January and February, with a single egg laid in July or August.Males fight for access to females during the mating season, (in January and February), with large males tending to get the most chances to mate. Nesting in the wild seems to occur in July and August, although clutches are produced year-round in captivity.The female digs a nest cavity about 7.5-10 cm deep in loose, sandy soil. Usually one egg is laid at a time, but a female can lay multiple eggs over the course of a single season, with eggs appearing every 4-8 weeks.

Offspring

The hatchling has a hard shell, which quickly becomes flat and soft. When these tortoises hatch, they are about an inch long and have a domed shell much like other species of tortoise. (The shell flattens out as the tortoise grows.)

Conservation

Status

Species is not presently threatened, but may become so unless trade is regulated. Listed as Vulnerable by the IUCN.

Historical

Current Threats

Over Consumption

Our Role

How You Can Help

- Don't buy a Pancake Tortoise as a pet!

Fascinating Facts

- It can climb vertical crevices in the rocks using the technique mountaineers call "chimney climbing"; the carapace is pressed against one wall and the feet against the other and the tortoise can wriggle upwards.- Unlike most tortoises, the (African) P

References

Grzimeck, Bernhard. 1975. Grzimeck's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Vol. 6 Van Nostrand Reinhold Co, New York City, NY, pp. 101-2.

Pritchard, Peter. The Encyclopedia of Turtles. 1979. TFH Publications, Neptune, NJ, pp. 463-466.

Connor, M.J. 1992. Pancake Tortoise, malacochersus tornieri. Tortuga Gazette, 28 (11): 1-3. http://www.tortoise.org/archives/malaco.html

Kirkpatrick, D.T. An Overview of the Natural History of the Pancake Tortoise, Malacochersus tornieri. (Online). Accessed February, 2017 at http://www.unc.edu/-dtkirkpa/stuff/pancake2.html

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