Posts Tagged ‘elephant care’

Let Elephants Be Elephants

by | June 20th, 2011

Here at the Oakland Zoo we have strong beliefs and views on animal welfare. We do everything we can to provide our animals with what they need, including space with the appropriate substrates, social dynamics, as well as enrichment and training for both physical and mental stimuli. Everything we do takes into consideration the health and well-being of the animal as well as the safety of the keeper. Wild animals can be dangerous and in no way should be treated like a pet. We work with them in a protected contact type of management to ensure our safety and theirs. You might be thinking why does the animal need to be safe? Aren’t you the one in

danger? The answer is yes. I am in danger should I walk into an enclosure and right up to an animal, but for me to be able to do that involves punishment on the animals part. If you have been to a circus before you have seen all the different animals they work with up-close and personal. This is not because the animals enjoy being in the circus and close to their handlers; this is because the animals are forced and beaten to behave.

Since I am an elephant keeper, let’s talk about elephants specifically. Working with the largest land mammal on earth is definitely intimidating. People think they are gentle giants but more often they are extremely dangerous. For decades these intelligent creatures have had to put up with being in the circus where their handlers have abused them into submission, beating them with what is called an “ankus” or “bullhook”. When you see the handlers inside the enclosure working directly with the elephant, this is called a free contact type of management.

Most often these elephants are beaten and abused, screamed at, and chained up for hours on end. There are hours of caught on tape footage from animal welfare groups of elephants being beaten for just standing and minding its own business. This is so the handler can keep the elephant in check, so that it never knows when it’s going to get hit. The reason for this abuse is so the handler can be dominant over the elephant so the handler doesn’t get killed. There is no reason for this type of management. If you have to abuse an animal just to get what you want it to do then you shouldn’t be doing it at all. Unfortunately this type of management system is still used in zoos today. Although not all of these facilities may be heavy handed, there is still always a danger of working with a 10,000 pound animal directly, which is why a keeper or circus handler is killed every year.

John Briggs, Elephant Keeper, demonstrates the use of target training with positive reinforcement. Osh presents his foot to the target and he gets a treat.

At Oakland we use a management system called Protected Contact. This style means that we only use positive reinforcement, and are always protected by a barrier whether it be spatial or with fencing. When we ask our elephants to do something they are always reinforced with treats. This keeps us and the elephants safe. When we are training we stand outside the fence line and use target poles, which are a long piece of bamboo or rake handle with a soft tip, to target a part of the body that we need. Most of our training is for husbandry and health purposes, but we do fun stuff as well such as catching a stick in the trunk or picking up an object when thrown. Fun stuff is okay as long as it is not strenuous on the elephants. A lot of the behaviors you might see in the circus such as legs stands are taxing on the joints and in the long term can cause arthritis and all other types of health issues.

Oakland Zoo elephants grazing on two acres of grass. This is what you would see in the wild.

So if this protected contact management style is so much better why doesn’t everyone use it? I don’t have a good answer for this other than selfishness. Free contact handlers think since they are in the same space they have a better relationship with the elephant, and that they can accomplish more with the animal behavior wise. There’s no reason to work in the same space as an elephant if it means that I have to abuse it and it might someday snap and kill me. At our facility we can accomplish anything we train, such as foot care, blood draws, ultrasounds, etc. I would rather see an elephant out on 6.5 acres grazing and browsing and interacting freely with one another, than standing next to me in fear, wearing some silly outfit, chained up for hours on end, performing unnatural tricks for profit. So, please support the Oakland Zoo and let elephants be elephants! Don’t go to the circus, the cruelest show on earth! Support your local non-animal circus’ such as Teatro Zinzanni and Cirque de Soleil. A huge thank you to those of you that attended our Annual Celebrating Elephants Fundraiser. We have raised more than 200,000 dollars over the past fifteen years and all of the proceeds go toward world renowned elephant researcher Cynthia Moss’ Amboeseli Elephant Trust, protecting African Elephants through conservation and research.

On July 23, bring the family to the Oakland Zoo for Feast for the Beasts. The public is invited to donate produce to the animals. The first 250 through the door (door opens at 9:00am) will receive a ticket to place produce in the elephant exhibit! Once all the produce is in place, guests can watch the elephants goggle down grapes, watermelon, apples, lettuce, carrots, and treats. The elephant feeding is so much fun. Be sure to get to the Zoo by 9:00am to be a part of the produce spreading at the elephant exhibit.

Caring For Elephants – A Labor of Love

by | March 29th, 2010

If you had asked me five years ago where I see myself I never pictured working with elephants, the largest land mammals on earth. Largest mammal = largest poop = lots of labor! Our day starts bright and early at 7:30 am, cleaning the exhibit or barn full of hundreds of pounds of elephant poop. While two unfortunate souls (we all take turns) have that fun task, the other two keepers get to give the elephant’s pedicures. Foot care is crucial in the management of captive elephants. In the wild, elephants walk for miles and miles, so they naturally take care of themselves. But in captivity we are limited on space so elephants don’t get the exercise they need and as a result can have poor circulation; therefore not being able to fight off infection should it arise. Every morning we hose, scrub, and inspect our elephant’s feet to make sure there are no problems. We are fortunate that we have six acres of space for our elephants, and with our observation program have found that they walk anywhere from 3-5 miles a day!

Donna elephant playing with large tractor tire, photo by author

After the foot care and morning manure pick-up is done, there is of course more manure pick-up, as well as basic hosing, raking, and clean–up. An even bigger part of our day than clean-up is feeding or what we call the elephant spreads. Three times a day, we shift the elephants off exhibit and put out a food spread for them. This spread consists of hay, chopped up produce, little tablespoons of sweet and sour items, and lots of tree branches. It’s called a spread because we hide and scatter the items far and wide so the elephants have to work for their food and forage to find it. In total we feed our elephants ten times a day.  Elephants in the wild forage and graze for up to 18 hours, so we try to mock this natural behavior with as many feedings as possible. We also try to hang the tree branches, or browse as we call it, on a chain as high as possible to simulate how an elephant would have to pull on a branch or a tree in the wild. The browse consists of half of their diet here at the zoo. We have a specialized Browse Keeper who is responsible for working with local tree companies to get donations of truckloads of branches. The keepers work hard and spend hours throughout the day picking up large dump truck loads of tree branches when companies cannot deliver.

M'Dunda grazing, photo by author

Besides the feeding, clean-up, and browse pick-ups the keepers find little blocks of time for training and enrichment projects. Most of our training at the elephant barn is for husbandry or medical purposes so we can take care of the elephants properly and safely. Some examples of this are blood draws, x-rays, and foot care procedures. Enrichment is one of the most challenging aspects of the job because what does a 10,000 pound elephant do with toys? They destroy them! The keepers have to be creative in finding ways to hang or plant things just out of reach so the elephants can’t smash hour’s worth of work in just minutes. Enrichment consists not only of toys but of all kinds of different ways to stimulate captive animals to keep them busy, whether it is a toy, a new scent, a puzzle feeder, or a new social group.

I started here as a volunteer intern and was lucky enough after awhile to become a full time keeper. This job is the most challenging, yet rewarding job I have ever had because the elephants keep me busy, creative, and exhausted. Usually I tell people I’m the lucky one because the elephants chose me.

Want to learn more about elephants? The Oakland Zoo hosts Celebrating Elephants each year, which is an event centered around elephants, elephant care, elephant research, elephant barn tours, and fun. A Celebrating Elephants evening lecture by Douglas Long, Ph.D., Chief Curator of Natural Sciences at Oakland Museum will also take place on May 13th at 6:00pm.  All proceeds from Celebrating Elephants Day and Lecture will benefit the Amboseli Trust for Elephants.