Amazon Milk Tree Frog

Wayne and Gladys Valley Children's Zoo

Location

In the Zoo
Size
Male
Female
Length:
2.5- 3 inches
3-4 inches
Weight
350 pounds Maturity: 30 years
Maturity:

Geographic Range

Northern areas of South America (Colombia, Bolivia, Brazil, Trinidad, Tobago, French Guiana, British Guyana, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela).

Scientific Information

Scientific Name:
Trachycephalus resinifictrix
Class:
Amphibia
Order:
Anura
Family:
Hylidae
Genus:
Trachycephalus

Lifestyle and Lifespan

Diet:
Carnivorous
Activity Time Frame:
Nocturnal
Interactivity:
Social
Sexual Dimorphism:
Yes
Gestation:
60 days gestation, 8 month incubation Lifespan in the Wild: 70+ years
Lifespan in the Wild:
8 years
Lifespan in Captivity:
8 years

Conservation

Status:
Least Concerned
Threats:
Habitat destruction due to expansion of human settlements and agriculture. Losses from logging disturbances. Over harvesting for local consumption and the exotic pet trade.

Characteristics

These frogs are light grayish in color with brown or black banding. Juveniles show stronger contrast which fades somewhat with maturity. Skin also becomes somewhat bumpy as they age.

Species Specifics

This species was previously within the genus Phrynohyas. However it was synonymised with Trachycephalus after the extensive revision of the family Hylidae in 2005.

Physical Characteristics

This species is sometimes called the mission golden eyed-tree frog for its golden iris, with a black Maltese cross centered on the pupil. It is also known as the boatman frog, "sapo canoeiro", because its croaks, which sounds like oars against the side of a canoe.

Ecology

Habitat

Above or near slow-moving water in humid rainforest regions.

Distribution

Rarely recorded, probably because of its arboreal habits.

Diet

Adults will consume almost any type of small arthropod they can overpower and swallow.

Ecological Web

This frog inhabits the canopy of tropical primary rainforests, where they breed in tree cavities and may seldom, if ever, descend to the ground. It reproduces in tree cavities and it is characterized by loud vocalization.

Activity and Behavior

Activity Pattern

Active in the day time periods and throughout spring and summer, retreating to burrows during the fall and winter months for brumation.

Behavior

Once they bite, they will not usually let go on their own and must be pulled off. The longer this takes, the more venom they will excrete into the bite! Unlike most lizards, they come out at night!

Social Behavior

Amazon Milk Frogs do great in groups. Overly amorous males may harass females on occasion, but Amazon Milk Frogs typically coexist peacefully in groups

Reproductive Behavior

Normal breeding season is from February to May. A few months after breeding, females dig a nest and bury an average of 4-14 eggs. A female living where there is a large population of tortoises will lay fewer eggs than those living around less tortoises. After around 3-6 months, the eggs hatch and the hatchlings are only three inches long.

Offspring

There is no fixed reproduction period. The females will lay about 2000 eggs in water captured within leaves or trees. The tadpoles hatch after one day. Only three weeks later, metamorphosis is completed.

Conservation

Status

Not listed as endangered. (Listed as Data Deficient by IUCN.) But, it is vulnerable to loss of habitat due to the deforestation prevalent within its small, restricted range. It is also popular in the pet trade, with most specimens being captured from the wild, because they need so much room to breed in captivity.

Historical

Current Threats

Habitat destruction due to expansion of human settlements and agriculture. Losses from logging disturbances. Over harvesting for local consumption and the exotic pet trade.

Our Role

Oakland Zoo believes that each one of us has the power to become stewards of the natural world, decrease our global footprint, and inspire others to do the same. Learn about the conservation initiatives we're pursuing at the Zoo, and find out how you can help. https://www.oaklandzoo.org/conservation

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How You Can Help

Fascinating Facts

Their common name, "milk frog," refers to the poisonous, white, milky secretion that this frog secretes when threatened.

References

http://www.waza.org/en/zoo/choose-a-species/amphibians/frogs-and-toads/trachycephalus-resinifictrix

Oakland Zoo

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/summary/55823/0

http://eol.org/pages/1025259/details