Lifestyle and Lifespan
Black in color. Two antennae, two compound eyes, two pairs of legs per body segment (except for head and tail segment). Usually 30 to 40 segments, but may have more. One of the largest millipedes in the world; can grow up to 11 inches in length. Males and females look alike.
There are over 10,000 species of millipede worldwide. Millipedes belong to the class Diplopoda, which has at least 15 recognized orders of millipedes. The giant millipede (Archispirostreptus spp.) belongs to the order Spirostreptida.
Millipedes have developed unique defense mechanisms for survival. Some species of millipedes can also secrete a foul-smelling/terrible tasting fluid through glands located alongside their body, near the legs on each segment. The toxicity of this fluid varies from species to species. For example, the excretions of some species can discolor human skin or irritate the eyes, others are corrosive, and some species even produce cyanide that can repel or kill insect predators.
Moist debris, rotting wood, and plant matter of tropical and subtropical regions.
The giant millipede lives in both tropical and arid coastal forests of eastern Africa.
In the wild, millipedes eat decaying plant matter, called detritus, making them detritivores.
Millipedes eat decaying plant material which cleans up the forest floors. In turn, that material passes through the millipede and fertilizes the soil, helping new plants to grow.
Millipedes will burrow in the ground during the heat of the day and come out to forage on detritus during the night.
One strategy is to curl up into a spiral. This coil protects the millipede's head and soft underside.
Will live communally.
Both males and females have their reproductive organs on their undersides. The male winds around the female, transfers sperm from his organ to his legs and thus deposits the sperm inside her. Fertilized eggs are laid in tiny holes in the ground. The white neonates have only a few segments and three pairs of legs. They darken in color and add segments and legs as they grow.
20 to 300 eggs
Three-Toed Box Turtles are not considered endangered at the national level in the United States, Canada or Mexico, although several U.S. states, including Michigan, New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Connecticut, list T. carolina as a species of special concern. It is considered endangered in Maine. IUCN: VulnerableCITES: Appendix II
Due to a widespread, consistent and persistent decline of the species, the ICUN considers the Box Turtle to be a Vulnerable Species. The decline is associated with anthropogenic causes, or manmade causes centering on urbanization. Agricultural use of pesticides within a shared water shed has negatively impacted young turtle survivability due to malformed eggs. Introduction of synanthopic predator species, (species who live near and benefit mutually from human settlement and urban habitats) such as ravens, coyotes and raccoons, are increasing in numbers as humans continue to urbanize.
Habitat Loss- Deforestation
Oakland Zoo has giant African millipedes on display in the Bug House for the education of the public. We also have millipedes in our program animal collection for animal close-ups.
Millipedes are doing well in the wild but lots of other animals in the African Rainforest that depend on millipedes to keep the soil healthy need our help. By supporting the Oakland Zoo you are supporting many conservation organizations across Africa.
While the millipede doesn’t have a thousand legs it does have between one hundred and two hundred.
There are many differences between millipedes and centipedes: centipedes have two legs per body segment, millipedes have four; centipedes are fast-moving carnivores while millipedes are slow herbivores; millipedes don’t bite, centipedes have venom in their fangs; neither sting with their legs.
Of all the Gerrhosaururidae lizards (Plated lizards) they are the most armored.