Island Flying Fox

Children's Zoo

Location

In the Zoo
Size
Male
Female
Height:
6-10 inches
6-10 inches
Length:
Weight
1.5 pounds
1.5 pounds
Maturity:
1 year
1 year

Geographic Range

Andaman and Maldives Islands; New Guinea through Indonesia to Vietnam and Thailand, and adjacent islands; Philippines.

Scientific Information

Scientific Name:
Pteropus hypomelanus
Class:
Mammalia
Order:
Chiroptera
Family:
Pteropodidae
Genus:
Pteropus

Lifestyle and Lifespan

Diet:
Herbivorous
Activity Time Frame:
Nocturnal
Interactivity:
Social
Sexual Dimorphism:
Yes
Gestation:
180-210 days
Lifespan in the Wild:
9 years
Lifespan in Captivity:
20 years

Conservation

Status:
Threats:
Habitat Loss

Characteristics

Naked dorsal tibia makes it unique from other Pteropus. Pale patch of fur on chest. Head is furred in dark brown to yellowish brown. Males are larger in size.

Species Specifics

The Three-Toed Box Turtle has a tan or olive carapace with darker seams and some vague markings. They also have orange, red and yellow spots on their head and forelimbs.The defining characteristic of this turtle is its toes. It has three toes on its back feet, thus why its known as the Three Toed Box Turtle. Hybrid Three Toed Box Turtles who have been interbred with Common Box Turtles sometimes have four toes instead of three. Sexual Dimorphism: males are larger. Males are slightly larger on average, the posterior lobe of their plastron is concave, and the claws on their hind legs are short, thick and curved. Males also have thicker and longer tails. Females' rear claws are longer, straighter and more slender, and the posterior lobe of their plastron is flat or slightly convex. There are four subspecies of Terrapene carolina in the United States. Terrapene carolina bauri (Florida Box Turtle) lives on the peninsula of Florida. Terrapene c. major (Gulf Coast Box Turtle) ranges from the panhandle of Florida westward along the Gulf cost to eastern Texas. Terrapene c. triunguis (Three-toed Box Turtle) lives in the Mississippi River Valley from northern Missouri southward across southeastern Kansas and eastern Oklahoma into southcentral Texas; and southeastward across western Tennessee and Georgia to the coastal lowlands.

Physical Characteristics

This species has strong senses of smell, hearing, and sight. They primarialy use smell and vision for finding food.

Ecology

Habitat

Forests, orchards, coconut palm groves. Island endemic.

Distribution

Will travel 8 km from roost site for food.

Diet

Feeds on wild and cultivated fruit in both primary and secondary tropical forests and rural gardens and plantations.

Ecological Web

Bats are very important pollinators and seed distributors.

Activity and Behavior

Activity Pattern

Like most reptiles, activity is temperature dependent, preferring conditions that are moist, humid, and warm. Ideal temperature is 80-95°F and they are more active during rainy periods and immediately after it has rained. During drought, turtles may spend time in burrows and in excessive heat turtles will seek out shallow pools of water to soak in. In fall months turtles are observed basking in the sunlight for energy. In Northern climates turtles will enter hibernation in late October. In places like Florida, turtles are active year around.

Behavior

During hot days, this species will flap its wings, lick its chest, and pant to cool off. During cool or rainy weather, they will completely wrap both wings around their body to conserve body heat.

Social Behavior

Will form colonies of up to 5,000 individuals.

Reproductive Behavior

Many females will form a harem with one male during the breeding season. During the gestation period, pregnant females will group together and care for one another. Birth during April and May.

Offspring

Single birth.

Conservation

Status

Listed as Least Concern by the IUCN, however in the Philippines it may be Near Threatened because of human predation and habitat loss. Listed on Appendix II of CITES.

Historical

The historical trends of this species are not known for South Asia.

Current Threats

Habitat Loss

Our Role

Yearly donation to Lubee Bat Conservancy

No items found.

How You Can Help

Support Lubee Bat Conservancy. Support Bat Conservation International (BCI).

Fascinating Facts

It can climb vertical crevices in the rocks using the technique mountaineers call "chimney climbing"; the carapace is pressed against one wall and the feet against the other and the tortoise can wriggle upwards.

The Iriquois and other Native Americans used them for food, medical, ceremonial, burial and hunting purposes.

Of all the Gerrhosaururidae lizards (Plated lizards) they are the most armored.

References

Lubee Bat Conservancy. "Island or Variable Flying Fox." lubee.org/bats/our-bats/island-flying-fox/.

Red List. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. "Pteropus hypomelanus." www.iucnredlist.org/details/18729/0.

Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Animal Program Database. "Flying Fox, Island SSP." ams.aza.org/eweb/DynamicPage.aspx?

webcode=APProfile&key=05318544-3872-4091-a857-b3cc66a50da3&ap1_key=05318544-3872-4091-a857-b3cc66a50da3&ap1_pt1_key=92bae3e8-3e14-4373-80ca-4b6995704dc6.

"University of Michigan. Animal Diversity Web. ""Pteropus hypomelanusvariable flying fox."" animaldiversity.org/accounts/Pteropus_hypomelanus/."