Pancake Tortoise

African Savanna

Location

In the Zoo
Size
Male
Female
Height:
1-2 inches
1-2 inches
Length:
6-7 inches
6-7 inches
Weight
1 pound
1 pound
Maturity:
7 years

Geographic Range

Found at altitudes of 1000 to 6000 feet in isolated locations of Kenya and Tanzania. The East African species is native to southern Kenya and northern and eastern Tanzania. An introduced population may also occur in Zimbabwe.

Scientific Information

Scientific Name:
Malacochersus tornieri
Class:
Reptilia
Order:
Testudines
Family:
Testudinidae
Genus:
Malacochersus

Lifestyle and Lifespan

Diet:
Herbivorous
Activity Time Frame:
Diurnal
Interactivity:
Social
Sexual Dimorphism:
Yes
Gestation:
150-221 days
Lifespan in the Wild:
25-35+ years
Lifespan in Captivity:
25 years

Conservation

Status:
Vulnerable
Threats:
Over Consumption

Characteristics

Unique among most tortoises, the Pancake Tortoise doesn't have a high, rigid carapace (upper shell). Instead, its carapace is extremely flattened and is very flexible (because the underlying bone isn't solid, but instead has many openings).This tortoise may look unusual, but it is perfectly adapted to its rocky habitat. With its flat, flexible shell this reptile can squeeze into rocky crevices (great places to hide from predators or cool off during the heat of the day). This tortoise also has strong limbs that it uses to wedge itself into the rocks. Its strong limbs are also great for climbing around the uneven terrain. This tortoise's brown carapace also helps it blend into its rocky surroundings. The tortoise's camouflaged appearance is particularly useful when it goes on foraging missions. An an herbivore it is a strict vegetarian that eats various kinds of grasses and leaves. This tortoise does most of its feeding early in the morning.

Species Specifics

Sexual Dimorphism. The carapace of an adult measures about 6 inches, with females slightly larger than males.

Physical Characteristics

Able to eat mushrooms containing poisonous compounds which are not safe for humans or other animals, perhaps acting as a defense against predation.

Ecology

Habitat

The preferred habitat is areas of thorn bush or savanna with small hills and rocky outcrops (kopjes).

Distribution

Found at altitudes of 1000 to 6000 feet in isolated locations of Kenya and Tanzania.

Diet

Eats succulents, thorn bush, grass and other plants in the wild. In captivity, will accept a variety of fruits and vegetables.

Ecological Web

Primary consumer.

Activity and Behavior

Activity Pattern

Diurnal. Feeds in the morning and evening. The Pancake Tortoise spends a lot of its time among the rocks, where it is sheltered. It is mainly active in the morning, emerging to bask and feed. Generally only emerging from shelter for about an hour, it is quite mobile and active during that time. When threatened, it will run into a crevice and use its legs to wedge itself as deeply as it can, remaining there until the danger is gone.

Behavior

The gecko will lick its eye to clean it from dust and other particles.

Social Behavior

These tortoises are surprisingly social, and get along well in a group as long as there is enough food for all. As many as ten tortoises have been found sharing the same crevice.

Reproductive Behavior

Mating takes place in January and February, with a single egg laid in July or August. Males fight for access to females during the mating season, in January and February, with large males tending to get the most chances to mate. Nesting in the wild seems to occur in July and August, although clutches are produced year-round in captivity. The female digs a nest cavity about 7.5-10 cm deep in loose, sandy soil. Usually one egg is laid at a time, but a female can lay multiple eggs over the course of a single season, with eggs appearing every 4-8 weeks.

Offspring

The hatchling has a hard shell, which quickly becomes flat and soft. When these tortoises hatch, they are about an inch long and have a domed shell much like other species of tortoise. The shell flattens out as the tortoise grows.

Conservation

Status

This species is not presently threatened, but may become so unless trade is regulated. Listed as Vulnerable by the IUCN.

Historical

Due to a widespread, consistent and persistent decline of the species, the ICUN considers the Box Turtle to be a Vulnerable Species. The decline is associated with anthropogenic causes, or manmade causes centering on urbanization. Agricultural use of pesticides within a shared water shed has negatively impacted young turtle survivability due to malformed eggs. Introduction of synanthopic predator species, (species who live near and benefit mutually from human settlement and urban habitats) such as ravens, coyotes and raccoons, are increasing in numbers as humans continue to urbanize.

Current Threats

Over Consumption

Our Role

No items found.

How You Can Help

Don't buy a Pancake Tortoise as a pet!

Fascinating Facts

It can climb vertical crevices in the rocks using the technique mountaineers call "chimney climbing"; the carapace is pressed against one wall and the feet against the other and the tortoise can wriggle upwards.

The Iriquois and other Native Americans used them for food, medical, ceremonial, burial and hunting purposes.

Of all the Gerrhosaururidae lizards (Plated lizards) they are the most armored.

References

Grzimeck, Bernhard. 1975. Grzimeck's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Vol. 6 Van Nostrand Reinhold Co, New York City, NY, pp. 101-2.

Pritchard, Peter. The Encyclopedia of Turtles. 1979. TFH Publications, Neptune, NJ, pp. 463-466.

Connor, M.J. 1992. Pancake Tortoise, malacochersus tornieri. Tortuga Gazette, 28 (11): 1-3. http://www.tortoise.org/archives/malaco.html

Kirkpatrick, D.T. An Overview of the Natural History of the Pancake Tortoise, Malacochersus tornieri. (Online). Accessed February, 2017 at http://www.unc.edu/-dtkirkpa/stuff/pancake2.html