Down in the Dumps: A Visit to Our Waste Management Facility
by | May 22nd, 2015

 

Oakland Zoo Education Staff

Oakland Zoo Education Staff Onsite

Do you ever wonder what happens to all the stuff that gets thrown away in this world? Actually, there’s no such thing as “away.” Everything has to go somewhere. And around here, that somewhere is the Davis Street Transfer Station in San Leandro.  Recently, three of Oakland Zoo’s education department staff visited the facility to learn what goes on there.  For one of these employees, this trip was like a step back in time. In 2010 Katie Garchar spent a year interning at Davis Street as an environmental education associate, where she taught school kids about the importance of waste management.  But this time around she and her zoo coworkers, Felicia and Dan, were acting as chaperones for a class of fourth graders visiting the facility for the first time.

Along with a similar site in Fremont, the Davis Street Transfer Station holds these fieldtrips twice a day and generously provides free bus transportation to make it easier for local school kids to attend. These classes are one of the many aspects of StopWaste.Org, the public agency committed to reducing waste in Alameda County. In the onsite classroom the kids learn all about the Four R’s: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, and Rot, the concepts that form the basis for reducing the amount of waste that we humans generate. After class, it’s time for a tour of the facilities. But first, the kids suit up in their protective gear: hard hats, safety goggles and bright reflective vests.  And then they learn all the safety rules.

aluminum being recycled

Aluminum ready to begin its new life

The first stop on the tour is the massive “MRF,” the Materials Recovery Facility, where all of the recyclable material gets sorted out. The idea here is to put as much of this stuff back into circulation as possible. Luckily, all of it can be recycled into new raw materials, such as aluminum, glass, plastic, cardboard and paper.

There’s another area called the C&D MRF, where material from construction and demolition projects is sorted and recycled. Lumber, concrete and metal all get broken down here or shipped to other facilities for further processing.  Then, at the composting area, organic waste from kitchens, gardens and yards is recycled into compost, mulch or woodchips and then sold to the public and local cities for reuse.

garbage pile

Garbage destined for the Landfill

The rest of the material goes to a place known as the Garbage Pit, where unfortunately, it’s destined for the landfill. From here, large capacity trucks known as “possum bellies” (each capable of carrying the weight equivalent of four full-grown elephants) take this trash to the Altamont Landfill facility near Livermore. One hundred of these trucks leave Davis Street each day, transporting a mind-boggling five million pounds of trash to that facility, where it sits and takes up space for a very long time, creating an ever-increasing burden on the environment.

During the tour, the kids get a chance to visit the Garbage Pit. Here the teacher leads them out onto a bridge that overlooks all the action, where big loaders move the material around. Then the kids are asked to point out anything they see that doesn’t belong there.  It’s a fun exercise that gets the kids to remember what they learned and to use their powers of observation. For safety reasons, rummaging and salvaging by the public is not allowed,

It takes an army of Trucks

It takes an army of Trucks

but it’s amazing what sorts of things show up in the trash—accidentally or deliberately. Katie said that if you’re ever unsure which bin to put something in at home, simply put it in the recycling. At least that way, it gets sorted and properly categorized. But anything you throw in the garbage goes straight to the landfill. So the next time you find yourself getting ready to throw something “away,” give some thought to where it might be going, and where it might end up. The decision you make today could easily have repercussions for generations to come!

 

Big Life, Big Victories! Celebrating Elephants Gala 2015
by | May 13th, 2015
Check out our lovely silent auction on May 16th. Help us protect the elephants that live in Amboseli National Park.

Check out our lovely silent auction on May 16th. Help us protect the elephants that live in Amboseli National Park.

There has been so much going on with elephants this year we can hardly keep up! Did you know that last fall Oakland Zoo aided in the banning of the bullhook in our own city? Yep, that’s right by 2016 the traveling shows with elephants will no longer be able to visit Oakland. Los Angeles has already been successful with a bullhook ban as well. Did you know that last month Ringling Brothers announced that by 2018 they will discontinue the use of elephants in their show? Due to the continuing pressure on the circus not being welcomed in cities across the country because of the treatment of their animals, they gave up the fight against advocates trying to create legislation to stop them. Did you know that this week the city of San Francisco banned the use of performing exotic animals for entertainment in the city? There’s a movement happening, a culture shift, and Oakland Zoo is proud to be a part of the change they have been advocating for, for the last thirty years. Still in the works are Senate Bill 716, a California state bill that will prohibit the use of the bullhook (including the use of a similar tool like a pitchfork), on or even around elephants. Also we are actively working on Assembly Bill 96, a California state bill that will end the legal sales of ivory in California. Yes, ivory is still legal to sell in the state. Just walk down the streets in San Francisco Chinatown and you’ll see it in shop windows. See my previous blog for more info on the issue.

Oakland Zoo is part of both coalitions who are working toward SB 716 and AB 96, collaborating with

Fund-a-need: A fantastic contribution you can make at our silent auction is to give funds toward equipment and supplies for the team that protects the elephants in Amboseli.

Fund-a-need: A fantastic contribution you can make at our silent auction is to give funds toward equipment and supplies for the team that protects the elephants in Amboseli.

some fantastic organizations who all seek the same outcome: the safety and survival of elephants. While we have been advocating for the past thirty years for the management and training style called Protected Contact Positive Reinforcement (PCP+), we also take responsibility that our mission is conservation and education. This year we have dedicated our 19th annual Celebrating Elephants events to fight for the passage of AB 96. We very much welcome Big Life Foundation as a new partner and a 2014 Quarters for Conservation vote. Did you know that when you enter the zoo, twenty five cents of your admission goes directly toward conservation, and you get a token to vote on one of three projects it will go toward? That’s pretty cool!

Amy Baird, Associate Director of Big Life Foundation will be our guest speaker for our 19th annual Celebrating Elephants Gala, on May 16th.

Amy Baird, Associate Director of Big Life Foundation will be our guest speaker for our 19th annual Celebrating Elephants Gala, on May 16th.

Big Life, founded by wildlife photographer Nick Brandt, and conservationist Richard Bonham, focuses on anti-poaching efforts and protects two million acres of land in the Tsavo-Amboseli ecosystem. Big Life is the only organization in East Africa that has coordinated anti-poaching rangers operating on both sides of the Kenya-Tanzania border. To date they have arrested 1790 poachers, and seized 3,012 poaching tools and weapons, while employing 315 rangers with 31 outposts and 15 vehicles.  They recognize that sustainable conservation can only be reached through a community based collaborative approach. Their vision is to establish a successful holistic conservation model in Amboseli-Tsavo that can be replicated across the African continent. They not only protect the elephants that live on this land, but all wildlife. We are lucky enough to have Amy Baird, Associate Director of Big Life to be our guest speaker at the Celebrating Elephants Gala on May 16th.

Please join us for a special Big Life presentation, followed by a reception with spirits and appetizers, and

peruse the lovely silent auction. Doors open at 6:00 pm. Tickets are available at the door or in advance

A forty plus years research study and conservation organization, on the behavior and ecology of African Elephants.

A forty plus years research study and conservation organization, on the behavior and ecology of African Elephants.

at: celebratingelephants2015.brownpapertickets.com. You may also make donations through this site if you can’t make it to the auction. And don’t forget to grab the entire family and join us for the day event on May 23rd, where you will experience the once-a-year opportunity to tour the elephant barn and talk to the staff about how the elephants are taken care of. For more detailed information check it out here:http://www.oaklandzoo.org/Celebrating_Elephants.php.  All proceeds of the two events go to the Amboseli Trust for Elephants in Kenya, check out their website here: https://www.elephanttrust.org/.

Big Love for Elephants with Big Life!
by | April 24th, 2015

It started with a book:  1,000 Places to See Before You Die. I was planning a trip to Kenya — my last one had been 25 years earlier — and read this:

“An Unspoiled Corner of Kenya:  Ol Donyo Wuas, Chyulu Hills. The owner and occasional resident personality, Richard Bonham chose the site for its view of Mount Kilimanjaro.  Bonham himself occasionally pops up…”

Big Life, one of our Quarters for Conservation partners for 2014-15, is headquartered in the Chyulu Hills at Ol Donyo; Richard Bonham is one of the co-founders, along with photographer Nick Brandt.  Big Life protects 2 million acres of the Amboseli-Tsavo ecosystem of East Africa, encompassing portions of southern Kenya and northern Tanzania.

Amboseli Tsavo ecosystem map
They implement the philosophy I heard about when I got there:  Wildlife Helping People.  Big Life is the largest employer of community members (predominantly Maasai) in the region, and the organization ensures that tourist revenue derived from wildlife in the ecosystem benefits the locals.

Richard Bonham grew up in Kenya, the son of a Kenya Wildlife Services ranger.  He recently received the Prince William Award for Conservation in Africa, and he thoroughly understands and appreciates Maasai economics and culture.

 

big life awardFor the Maasai, cattle are their wealth.  They live on semi-arid land that their cattle share with savannah grazers and browsers — elephants, giraffe, buffalo, wildebeest, antelopes, zebras — along with predators — lions, leopards, cheetah, hyenas.  Young boys grow up herding and protecting cattle among all the resident wildlife, and they have a deep knowledge and appreciation of nature, with one exception:  lions are a traditional enemy, and when a lion kills a Maasai cow, teenage warriors retaliate — and prove their manhood — by killing a lion.

Over the last 25 years, Maasai elders — who serve as mentors for adolescents — have realized that their lion-killing tradition can’t continue.  Lions are among the iconic tourist draws, and if every Maasai warrior proved his manhood by killing a lion, tourist revenue would die with the lions.  In 2008, the elders asked Richard Bonham to brainstorm a solution with them, and together they came up with two schemes:  a predator compensation fund, from which the community partially compensates a family that loses cattle in spite of their best efforts to protect them; and the Maasai Olympics, where young men compete in traditional Maasai skills for prizes, displacing the need to kill a lion as a rite of passage.  The elders spent six months on education about the importance of the young generation in implementing a cultural change that would preserve the best of their traditions — but update their values to the realities of the 21st century.

Big Life and their partners have organized Maasai Olympics competitions in 2012 and 2014.  David Rudisha, the Maasai gold medalist in the 800 meters at the 2012 London Olympics, is a fervent supporter, and guest of honor.
2014-12-01-MaasaiWarriorJumps9.8ftduringMaasaiOlympics
During the last quarter of 2014, not one elephant, among the 2,000 that pass through, was poached in Big Life’s area of operation.  Most of the danger for elephants now lies in conflict with farmers:  elephants raid crops, or drain the water supply, potentially destroying a year’s livelihood.  Farmers retaliate by spearing the elephants.

And Big Life comes to the rescue:  a Kenya Wildlife Service vet flies to Ol Donyo when the staff spot a wounded elephant, treats the wound and sends the elephant back to the wild, hopefully wiser about where and what he chooses to eat and drink.

 

elephant down
The community around Ol Donyo now Gets It about conservation.  Big Life’s latest story:

They arrived with a just cause, eight construction workers to build a classroom. They must have wondered at all the animals, living in peace and not terrified of humans. Clearly they didn’t take the time to find out why.

And this led to a very bad decision. If no one else was eating all these animals, well then they would. They chased down a lesser kudu, an uncommon and shy antelope, and snuck the carcass into the school through a hole in a fence.

But they misjudged the people around them. The message went from a set of community eyes, via the Big Life control room, and straight to the rangers. The cooking fire wasn’t even warm by the time the ranger team arrived, and the men found themselves on their way to the police station. A bad end to their day.

Despite the on-going conflicts with elephants and predators, this is a community that has decided to conserve wildlife, and the sooner visitors get the message, the better for them.

Note: Big Life will be presenting at our annual Celebrating Elephants event on May 16th. Join us!

BeeYond the Sting: The Importance of Bees in Our World
by | April 24th, 2015

 

What comes to mind when you hear the word “bee?” Do you think of some pesky, stinging insect? Or do you see the bigger picture, appreciating how absolutely amazing they are and how much they contribute to the natural ecosystem? Sure, they produce honey. But there’s a lot more to bees than that. In fact, bees are among the most beneficial members of the animal community. They’re responsible for pollinating a long list of fruits, vegetables and nuts—crops that the entire world depends upon. Without bees, we humans would be in big trouble. But do you know what? Bees themselves are in big trouble. Their populations have been plummeting in recent years—a problem that’s almost exclusively human-caused. So they need our help.

Ready to work with the Bees

Ready to work with the Bees

What’s this got to do with Oakland Zoo? Well, the zoo has been considering starting its own bee program, similar to the ones at Happy Hollow Zoo, Coyote Point Museum, and the San Francisco Zoo. So recently, several members of the zoo’s education staff went on a field trip in Redwood City to visit the home of a man who knows quite a bit about bees. In fact, he’s a beekeeper. Richard Baxter of Round Rock Honey has been raising honeybees for 25 years now and even holds classes on the subject. On February 15th, Education Animal Interpretive Program Manager Felicia Walker and Olivia Lott, the lead Education Specialist for our Creek and Garden programs, attended one of these three-hour beekeeping courses. I recently had a chance to meet with Felicia and find out what she learned.

For one thing, honeybees are not native to this area. Although many types of bees can be found here, the species that produce honey originated in Africa before migrating to Europe and Asia. Then in the 1600s, Europeans introduced them to America. They’ve done very well here until recently, when environmental threats started seriously reducing their numbers.

The most critical of these threats is the use of pesticides—both in agriculture and at home. That’s often the problem with chemical-based solutions to problems: While trying to control harmful pests, we often harm beneficial animals in the process. For this reason Mr. Baxter uses strict organic methods in his beekeeping operations. In fact for the last 25 years, he’s been doing everything he can to ensure that bee populations rebound, like setting up additional bee hives for friends and at various public places in the area. He also sells the products that his own bees produce, such as beeswax, pollen, and honey as well as household products like soap, lotion, candles and lip balm that are made from these materials.

Hive frame being removed

Bees on a hive frame

The zoo’s education department hopes to make its own contribution by installing bee hives here at the zoo and in the surrounding park sometime in the future, utilizing the existing floral gardens as a natural environment. The zoo hopes to hold classes to teach the public about the importance of bees, for example through pollinator workshops that demonstrate the symbiotic relationship between various animals and the plant community.

Given the important role that bees play in our world you might be asking, “What can I do to help?” Mr. Baxter suggests three things that people can do. 1) Don’t use pesticides in your garden. 2) Become a beekeeper. 3) Join a local beekeeping guild. Remember, by advocating for bees you not only help them, but you also help all of us as well. So stay tuned to Oakland Zoo’s website for news. Hopefully you’ll be seeing some busy little additions to our zoo family soon!

So we asked the giraffe, “How do you really feel?”
by | April 21st, 2015

I have worked with UC Davis for almost 10 years on a variety of projects – raising California salamanders, watching turtle interactions, training dolphins, living amongst monkeys in India, and watching chimpanzees – and though all these projects have been fascinating, the current project we are launching excites me to the core. Our Animal Well-Being Research program at Oakland Zoo is still in its infancy, but it’s strong, vibrant, and ready to pave the way in enhancing our animal’s lives and what we know about them.  We’re developing new ways for keepers to let animals tell (or show) us about their emotional lives.  Some of these new ‘tools’ are borrowed from the large human literature on human emotion (termed “affective science”).  Others, we’ll be building ourselves.

The first reason I am excited about the research, which is be described below, is that we will be working directly with Dr. Eliza Bliss-Moreau at the University of California, Davis, with whom I have worked since 2009 on a variety of other forward-looking projects in animal welfare. Dr. Bliss-Moreau studies emotion and the biological ingredients that make up emotions. Her multi-method and multi-species approach to understanding the social and affective lives of both humans and nonhuman animals is, in our opinion, revolutionary. Her work points to evidence from biological research to challenge commonly-held beliefs about what emotions are and about how we interpret their presence in others.  Armed with new questions, she’s looking for ways for animals to tell us about their experiences using biological tools that are new to animal welfare. We are lucky to have such a great mind at the helm, and she has remarked that our animal care team and program supports a ‘living laboratory’ that enhances both science and animal well-being.

The second reason I am excited about this research is it has the potential to be ground-breaking – not only in what we know about animals, but also in what we can do to enhance their lives. The goal of our collaborative research project is to investigate whether the cardiac system in nonhuman mammals functions similarly to that of humans during emotional experiences.  When people interact, we use what we know about emotions to gather information about whether others are feeling down, gleeful, tired, apprehensive, excited, etc. We are all familiar with what it feels like to walk into a final exam or job interview, see a car accident, or fall in love.  They are all experiences that can be felt physically, with our hearts pumping faster, our stomachs tightening, etc. When in doubt, we can ask each other how we feel.

In the same way, as animals keepers, we perceive the behaviors of animals using our own human understanding of them (which may or may not be 100% accurate relative to what the animal is experiencing), but we can’t take the next step in asking them how they are feeling. There is no doubt that animals live dynamic, enriched lives as well, but until recently it has not been possible to look at how animals experience their environment from the inside out—by noninvasively evaluating a biological system (in this case, the cardiac system) that responds quickly and efficiently to the environment.DSC_0013

The current focus of our new efforts is in training the giraffe to participate in a testing process that will record the function of the heart—electrocardiograms (ECG or EKG) and impedance cardiograms. The cardiac system is regulated by two branches of the autonomic nervous system: the parasympathetic branch and the sympathetic branch.  While people sometimes think of the parasympathetic branch is the “rest and digest” system (where activity in the system calms someone down so that they can prepare for the future by eating, sleeping, and reproducing) and the sympathetic branch as the “fight or flight” system (where activity in the system allows someone to attack or run away) the two branches work together to keep us balanced, which allows us to respond appropriately to different situations. Dr. Bliss-Moreau explains it this way: “While the control centers for the autonomic nervous system are in the brain, the system is based in the body and regulating physiology south of the brainstem.  It is largely responsible for generating one of the necessary and critical ingredients of emotion– affect. I typically talk about autonomic nervous activity as giving “color” to experience.  Its activity is why hearing footsteps in a dark alleyway feels negative; the ramped-up feeling when you’re anticipating something major to happen; the pleasantness of a really good massage, and so on.”

Dr. Bliss-Moreau and many other affective scientists (see https://society-for-affective-science.org/) are involved in research looking at how the autonomic nervous system (ANS) responds to brief emotional stimuli (a honk of a loud horn, a tear-jerking Super Bowl commercial) and also how there are sDSC_0112table differences between individuals in how their autonomic nervous systems function.  With regards to the latter, the idea is that if you track ANS activity in different animals across time, you’ll see patterns.  And then changes to those patterns might indicate changes in mood states. We’ll be doing this work first with the Oakland Zoo’s giraffes and ring-tailed lemurs. “If we can show that variation between individuals or within a particular individual across time is meaningful, then it opens the possibility of asking an animal, ‘how are you today?’, putting on some sensors, recording some data, and getting an answer. Cool, right?  I think it’s SUPER cool!” said Dr. Bliss-Moreau. But before we can do this, we have to develop new ways to collect such recordings in a way that is non-invasive for the animals, as well as train the animals to participate willingly in the data collection.

For each animal involved with this research, we start by training the animals that the research equipment (sensors, leads, stethoscope, etc.) are not painful or even just simply icky. We do this by using positive reinforcement, habituation, and desensitization – training methods that reinforce an animal’s comfort and control in the situation. This basically means that you pair something new (like physiology equipment) with something really good (like pieces of banana) until the animal is comfortable with having the novel stimulus around and touching them.

IMG_0444You can see zookeepers and Dr. Bliss-Moreau habituating and desensitizing one of our giraffes, ‘Benghazi,’ to being touched with sticky sensors. When Benghazi is calm, and allows the training team to touch him with the sensors, he is rewarded with one of his favorite foods (which in Benghazi’s case is bananas, whole wheat bread, and carrots). You can also see that Benghazi is not restrained, and can walk away from the training session at any time he chooses. Over time and with repetition, Benghazi learns that nothing bad happens to him when the keeper touches him with the sensors. Interestingly, we needed to place the sensors on poles and hold them against Benghazi’s skin since giraffes naturally exude an oily ‘insect repellant’ that prevents the sensors from sticking to his skin. In this most recent training session, Dr. Bliss-Moreau and our Oakland Zoo giraffe training team were able to record “beautiful” (according to Dr. Bliss-Moreau) cardiac data – our first major victory!

As we wrapped up the training session Dr. Bliss-Moreau observed, “It DSC_0118was really exciting for us to see the giraffes at the Oakland Zoo participating in this research, especially since we’ve been using the same techniques to get our monkeys ready for physiology data collection in the lab… We developed a reward-based training technique that uses cooperative training allowing rhesus macaques to work with us to participate in similar hands-on testing in just a few weeks. Using these cooperative training techniques and data collection methods means that animals are really our partners in the research—participants, rather than subjects!”

There is still a long road ahead of us, but one that is well-worth traveling. There are likely differences in how animals and humans not only perceive their world, but in how they feel about it as well. Studies like this are important for our understanding of both the similarities and differences. This aids in our understanding of non-human life on our planet as much as it aids in our ensuring the animals we care for have enriching physical, social, and emotional lives.

Oakland Zoo Veterinarian in Africa – Conclusion
by | March 3rd, 2015

March 1 and 2

 

Parting thoughts…

 

The journey home from QENP and Uganda takes three days, which gives me ample time to reflect on all I have seen and learned in the past 16 days. I am deeply grateful for this opportunity to travel to Uganda, work in the field alongside conservation experts, discover exotic cultures, and begin a project that may ultimately aid in saving a critically endangered ecosystem. Dr. Siefert and James will continue the fight for tomorrows, while we help from home until we return. I hope that my words from Uganda have been educational, entertaining, and maybe even a little inspirational for those of you who have followed our journey. If that’s the case, or even if it’s just because lion cubs are one of the cutest things on the planet, please be sure to visit UCP’s webpage often www.uganda-carnivores.org – maybe you, too, can give them a chance for tomorrow. Until the next visit…Cub with kob

Papa resting